... of course, most of it never made to the show.

The menagerie that come alive (Laura's moments, noticed by tom?)

Tom's visions -- ocean sounds, light, stars... and newsreals.

The sounds of bluzes (dancehall)?

Hot nights, they are undressing.

Father come to watch (I had this extra character).

I had two Toms ...

Madness of Laura (Amanda's fears)... and she reads Tom's notes (writing). And Laura does. They all suspect rach other, they want to share the secrets (thoughts, feelings).

... Jim as "fantacy"; it sould looks as he wasn't real.

A Memory Play.


Scene Analysis : Dramaturgy [413]
Tennessee Williams's the Glass Menagerie by Harold Bloom; Chelsea House, 1988 Glass Menagerie * Theatre UAF


The Glass Menagerie was written in 1944, based on reworked material from one of Williams' short stories, "Portrait of a Girl in Glass," and his screenplay, The Gentleman Caller. In the weeks leading up to opening night (December 26, 1944 in Chicago), Williams had deep doubts about the production‹the theater did not expect the play to last more than a few nights, and the producers prepared a closing notice in response to the weak initial ticket sales. But two critics loved the show, and returned almost nightly to monitor the production. Meanwhile, they gave the play enthusiastic reviews and continued to praise it daily in their respective papers. By mid-January, tickets to the show were some of the hottest items in Chicago, nearly impossible to obtain. Later in 1945, the play opened in New York with similar success. On opening night in New York, the cast received an unbelievable twenty-five curtain calls.

Tennessee Williams did not express strong admiration for any early American playwrights; his greatest dramatic influence was the brilliant Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. Chekhov, with his elegant juxtaposition of the humorous and the tragic, his lonely characters, and his dark sensibilities, was a powerful inspiration for Tennessee Williams' work‹although Williams' plays are undeniably American in setting and character. The novelist D.H. Lawrence offered Williams a depiction of sexuality as a potent force of life; Lawrence is alluded to in The Glass Menagerie as one of the writers favored by Tom. The American poet Hart Crane was another important influence on Williams; with Crane's dramatic life, open homosexuality, and determination to create poetry that did not mimic European sensibilities, Williams found a great source of inspiration. Williams also belongs to the tradition of great Southern writers who have invigorated literary language with the lyricism of Southern English.

Like Eugene O'Neill, Tennessee Williams wanted to challenge some of the conventions of naturalistic theatre. Summer and Smoke (1948), Camino Real (1953), and The Glass Menagerie (1944), among others, provided some of the early testing ground for Williams' innovations. The Glass Menagerie uses music, screen projections, and lighting effects to create the haunting and dream-like atmosphere appropriate for a "memory play." Like Eugene O'Neill's Emperor Jones and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, Williams' play explores ways of using the stage to depict the interior life and memories of a character. Tom, as narrator, moves in and out of the action of the play. There are not realistic rules for the convention: we also see events that Tom did not directly witness. The screen projections seem heavy-handed, but at the time their use would have seemed to be a cutting-edge innovation. The projections use film-like effects and the power of photography (art forms that are much younger than drama) in a theatrical setting. In The Glass Menagerie, Williams' skillful use of the narrator and his creation of a dream-like, illusory atmosphere help to create a powerful representation of family, memory, and loss.


Williams and and Epic Theatre techtniques (Brecht) + Method Acting Modern American Drama, 1945-2000 by C. W. E. Bigsby; Cambridge University Press, 2000 [ CHAPTER THREE: Tennessee Williams: the theatricalising self ]


Student Companion to Tennessee Williams
Book by Nancy M. Tischler; Greenwood Press, 2000

3. The Glass Menagerie (1945) BACKGROUND ... It is not a typical Tennessee Williams play. He usually built too complex a plot to fit on the stage, with too many interesting stories for each of the characters, spiced with too much violence and sexuality. In The Glass Menagerie, he kept it simple. This depression-era tale of a small Southern family in financial trouble is set in St. Louis. The father has abandoned his wife and two children, both of whom are now young adults. The son, Tom Wingfield, is reluctantly working in a warehouse to support his mother and sister. The daughter, Laura, is clearly unable to take care of herself, too frightened to work in an office and too shy to find a good husband. She is crippled both physically and psychologically. Although Amanda, the mother, tries to sell magazine subscriptions, she knows that she cannot support her daughter and herself without Tom's help. Having been raised to be a "lady" she has no marketable skills. Amanda seeks desperately to make Laura independent by enrolling her in business school, but that proves a failure. She then nags her son to bring home a suitor to court and marry Laura. Tom finally obliges his mother, reeling in Jim O'Connor, whose forthright and clumsy manners underscore the family's peculiar Southern habits. Jim enjoys the dinner, the conversation, and the time alone with Laura. He dances with her, kisses her, admires her glass menagerie, and clumsily breaks her favorite figure -- a unicorn. Embarrassed at the hopes he knows he has raised in this shy girl, he beats a hasty retreat, mumbling that he must keep a date with his fiancée. The family bids him farewell with gracious words, knowing that this is the end of their hope -- Jim will not return, Laura will not marry, Tom will escape, and Amanda will be forced to cope with an impossible future.

Monologue Study: 1 101 * 2 comedy * 3 drama *


Another life of this paly... in Ethiopia?

Williams Page

Do you see this bar at the top of my page "topics"? This is a new idea to connect all diffrent directories through themes or subjects! When will I complete it? Who knows?

Bibliographical Essay : The Lively World of Williams Scholarship : Since his death in 1983, there has been a blossoming of scholarship regarding Tennessee Williams' life and his works. In addition to a newsletter, a journal, and more recently a review that are all dedicated to the study of Williams, we also have Williams festivals quite regularly in New Orleans; Clarksdale, Mississippi; Williamstown, Massachusetts; and Hartford, Connecticut. Each of these festivals and the numerous special meetings that occur sporadically contribute still more articles and insights to the body of Williams scholarship...

There are more photos at Theatre UAF or Tara's costumes.org!
Read Williams, play, stage, write...

Let me repeat myself (from Film600 and script.vtheatre.net):

Where teaching and studying (research) meet --

Theme-thought, according to different playwrights (Shakespeare, Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov and so on) and directors (Fillini, Kurosawa, Tarkovsky, Bergman pages).

Connections with other themes (list): family, gender and sex...

Finally, my own practical investigations: shows.vtheatre.net (only recently I began to make themes pages, Don Juan 2003, for example).

And the nonfiction (writing), of course: HIM, Father-Russia, PostAmeriKa, Self, POV, Tech (gatepages are in WRITE directory).

Yeah, yeah, there is more -- "philo" pages, metaphysics: in theatre theory directory, for instance (topics-bar: space, time and etc.)
Plus, Virtual Theatre and Book of Spectator!

Web? Oh, this is just medium. Like stage, screen, writing...

2007 - new
Next: Script Analysis
2008 --
Peter Brook -- fundamentals of stage directing

©2006 Fall:


2007 Spring:



http://www.webenglishteacher.com/twilliams.html HS guide

... images :

menagerie T. Williams ...